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The Commercialization of Lumber
    1. readily available
    2. long lasting
    3. dense
    4. flexible
    1. It was long lasting.
    2. It was relatively easy to transport.
    3. Its softness made it easy to work with.
    4. It produced buildings that were especially attractive.
    1. Farmers of the American West earned most of their income by selling timber to newly arrived settlers.
    2. Timber came primarily from farmers who wished to supplement their income.
    3. Timber was much more expensive before the year 1860 because it was less readily available.
    4. Timber came primarily from large manufacturing companies in the East.
    1. To give an example of how steam power led to technological advancements
    2. To help explain how the thickness of a saw blade determines how much wood is wasted
    3. To explain how competition with other countries benefited the American lumber industry
    4. To illustrate the impact of new technology on the lumber industry
    1. encouraging
    2. introducing
    3. making possible
    4. emphasizing
    1. Work became centralized, and many tasks were automated.
    2. Lumber could be produced more efficiently and on a larger scale.
    3. Waste materials could be re-used as fuel to power the lumber mills.
    4. Lumber production could continue throughout the cold winter months.
    1. Certain trees would become dry and yield low-quality lumber.
    2. There would not be enough water in streams and lakes to raft the logs to mills.
    3. It would be more difficult to transport logs to streams and lakes.
    4. Rivers would not be full enough in the spring to power mills.
    1. To argue that Michigan had replaced other Great Lakes states as the center of the lumbering industry
    2. To provide evidence of the growing importance of logging railroads to the lumbering industry
    3. To support the claim that Michigan winters had become more severe in the late 1800s than they had been earlier
    4. To challenge the idea that climate discouraged the laying of track
    1. reducing the pressures placed on the northern Midwest pinelands in the 1860s
    2. reducing the length of the downstream trip to a mill by as much as 10 miles
    3. increasing the number of logs that could be floated down a river at a single time
    4. allowing logs to move downstream more quickly and easily
  1. Some sleighs were capable of carrying over 100 tons worth of timber.
  2. Increasing demands for timber in nineteenth-century America transformed lumbering in the Great Lakes region.
    1. During the nineteenth century, lumbering became a large-scale industry controlled by manufacturing companies rather than a local enterprise controlled by farmers.
    2. Technological advances, including the use of steam power, led to increased productivity, efficiency, and commercialization of the lumbering industry.
    3. Seasonal changes and severe winters made the development and laying of track for logging railroads slow and difficult.
    4. After 1860 farmers continued to be the main suppliers of new timber, but lumbering companies took over its transport and manufacture into wood products.
    5. The invention of new technology, such as band saws, allowed American lumbering companies to make a profit by exporting surplus lumber to Britain and other countries.
    6. New methods for transporting logs to mills helped transform lumbering from a seasonal activity to a year-round activity.